Monthly Archives: July 2016

Are Uniforms a Good Way to Improve Student Discipline and Motivation?

The school uniform has a fairly short and somewhat chequered history. For all practical purposes, school uniforms as we know them today have their roots in the British public school system. For the sake of clarity, a British public school is equivalent to an American private school, and an American public school is equivalent to a British State school.

Up until the middle part of the 19th century, British public schools were the preserve of a wealthy elite, the later mandarins of the British Empire. Nevertheless, they were quite disorderly, with students behaving much as they wished. Uniform began to be introduced as a means of instilling a greater degree of discipline and team spirit, and rapidly gained acceptance within the public school system. Quite remarkably some of these uniforms still remain relatively unchanged today.

As is often the case, the middle classes – who would by tradition have sent their children to smaller, less exclusive, but still privately funded schools began to take up the fashion for school uniforms which had been adopted by their erstwhile social betters. In 1870, the Education Act made schooling for all compulsory for all in Britain, and many of the new state schools naturally adopted the sort of uniform policies which had been so eagerly embraced in the private system.

From that time, right through until the 1960’s school uniform was practically universal in the United Kingdom.

The American experience is something of a contrast. School uniform (except in Catholic or parochial schools) was virtually unknown. Many schools had dress codes, which were exclusive rather than prescriptive. Blue jeans and high heels, for example might be banned, but pupils were not told what they must wear.

This is exactly the system that our proponent of school uniforms described as being started in her school at South Houston in the late 1950’s, and to which she ascribes a subsequent significant improvement in discipline and grades.

In 1996, President Clinton instructed the then Secretary for Education Richard W Riley to send a Manual on School Uniforms to every School District in the country. The manual set out the Government’s position, creating guidelines for all schools on which they could model their uniform requirements. The Government view was that the adoption of school uniform would reduce violence and indiscipline in schools, but did not go as far as making uniform mandatory, the decision being left to individual school districts.

The view of the Government was clearly not shared by parents, pupils or the school districts’ administrators. By 1998, only 11% of Public Elementary Schools had adopted a uniform policy, and by 2000, that figure had only increased to 15.5%.

The decisions to adopt uniform were not consistent across the country.

Suburban schools had a relatively lower rate of uptake, perhaps reflecting the efforts of a more highly politicised group of parents.

The proponents on either side of the debate about school appear to have entrenched and almost polar opposite opinions, and there is a fog of statistics and counter-statistics available to support either proposition.

Are they in fact beneficial in improving discipline and motivation_ I believe so, and the experience at South Houston suggests that I am right!

The staff reported a considerable decrease in violence and indiscipline, and an average across the board increase of two grades in academic performance by the end of the year within which a uniform policy was introduced. Could it just be co-incidence? It seems hardly likely.

There is no doubt that when a school adopts a uniform policy, it is sending a clear and unequivocal message to parents and students alike. It is saying that this is an inclusive organisation where everyone is seen to be equal, and will be treated as such. School is about learning, not about showing off or scoring fashion points.

Some people would have us believe that children hate uniforms -indeed, many children will say so themselves, but the facts belie this opinion. Children, when they join an organisation with a uniform, just can’t wait to get into it.

Most of us have an innate need to belong, to feel part of a group, to feel accepted and understood by our peers, and if possible to have their admiration and respect. This does not just apply to children; it applies to the members of your local chapter of Hell’s Angels aware.

Of course, one of the obvious marks of a discrete group is its uniform.

When you provide a child with a uniform, you are giving him an instant key to acceptance within a group, the chance to belong to it and feel part of it.

Those who oppose uniform will say that by putting a child into uniform, you are taking away his constitutional right to freedom of expression. Nevertheless, isn’t it interesting to note that left to themselves, children will to a greater or lesser degree choose a uniform of their own. These may not be identical in detail, but just look at any group of youngsters, and what do you see? Brand X shoes, Brand Y jeans, baseball hat on backwards – or droopy pants! So much for free expression!

According to Warren, “With over thirty years of decline in a basic understanding of, and standard for, what is acceptable in polite society, though, school uniforms may be what are required to try to restore to our kids some sense of dignity, self-respect, respect for education, and awareness of what’s appropriate where.” 1

The design of a uniform can be such that it does not preclude the expression of individuality by permitting the low key use of buttons and badges.

Furthermore, if students clearly see that they cannot express their individuality through wearing extreme styles of clothing, they are much more liable to try to do so through their achievements.

The wearing of uniform and identification with the group has some other subtle benefits which have been cleverly exploited by the military for centuries. Primarily, group membership and wearing of the uniform bring with them a sense of loyalty to the group. It is unacceptable to let the group down, or to bring it into disrepute. The same spirit that works in the infantry squad works in the classroom too – “together we can do it!”

It is curious therefore that many of those who prize individuality so highly fail to notice this highly observable phenomenon, without which our armed forces would be worse than useless.

A significant part of the psychology of group membership and identity is the feeling of security that comes from not being identifiably strange or ‘different’.

It is well understood that in society and in school, the child who is ‘different’ is the one who is picked on, harassed or bullied. A well designed school uniform removes at least some of the visible signs of ‘difference’ immediately.

The Fort Wayne School Year says “Uniforms, with all students looking the same, can instill a sense of school togetherness. Just as a uniform solidifies a sports team or public service providers, such as police officers, it provides a link to others in your school community. That can make you feel like you’re part of a bigger picture, rather than standing out in a big school.” 2

There is also economic advantage to be gained from a uniform policy. Where a policy is in place, there is no longer the pressure on the parent to by the latest fad footwear for example, or whatever the accessory of the moment might be. For the pupil, the likelihood of being perceived as poor, or having unsuccessful parents is obviated, and the associated stigma avoided.

When the need to compete materially with fellow pupils is removed, the child’s mind is more likely to be focused on his education, achieving for himself and the group. In this situation once again, the interest of the individual is not totally subordinated to that of the group, but is integrated into it and enhanced by it.

A small but significant psychological benefit results from having a uniform policy – it removes the need for both parent and child to decide what to wear to school, whereby arguments, stress and anger can be avoided.

There is reason to believe that school uniforms can have an impact on safety in the school environment. Even at the most simplistic level, anyone who does not belong in the school can be quickly identified and checked out. Likewise, any students who ought to be in school but are wandering around the community instead are easily noted.

Most school uniforms are of such a design that it is much more difficult to secrete offensive weapons on the person, and this should result in a lower incidence of students trying to take weapons into school.

In the tragic events at Columbine, the killers (one of whom who had hidden a weapon under his trench coat) were heard to shout “Everyone with a white hat stand up” in an attempt to isolate sports team members as targets.

Many thefts and murders have been attributed to something as simple as envy over designer clothing, and an adequate uniform policy removes that risk at a stroke.

A safe education environment is inextricably linked to discipline and motivation. Students who feel safe are less likely to behave disruptively, are less likely to fear going to school, and have more energy to expend on their studies. School uniform, insofar as it contributes to a safer environment, has an important part to play.

The Principal of South Shore School, Seattle, is quoted as saying “Dr. John German, reports that “this year the demeanour in the school has improved 98 percent, truancy and tardies are down, and we have not had one reported incident of theft.” 3

One of the detractors of school uniforms has asked “Are we okay with losing even one child who may quit school if uniforms are mandated?”

One might ask in reply “Is it better to lose one child who may quit school, or seven or ten who may be killed because their dress was clearly and identifiably different?”

Good grade results demand close attention to schoolwork, and in class (at least for testosterone fueled young males) one of the biggest distractions is quite simply young females who are provocatively dressed. Excessively tight or excessively brief clothing on either gender is a distraction which a good school uniform policy can remove, with benefits to all concerned.

Some of those who oppose uniforms in schools suggest that designing and policing uniform policy detracts significantly from the time staff have to perform their teaching function. One of them goes so far as to say “creating and maintaining a new uniform policy would reduce the time spent on instructional improvement

and increase divisiveness, both among staff and between staff and students.”

The opposite is, in fact, the case. There is a time input into creating a policy, but the input to that task should involve parents, students and non academic staff as well as teachers. Once the policy is in place, teaching staff do not have to spend time being ´dress police´, deciding whether or not a skirt or a pair of baggy pants is too short, and then having to follow up on the counseling and disciplinary issues that may ensue.

More than ten years on from the US Governments initial attempt to promote school uniforms, the argument rages on. Both sides produce statistics to support their view.

Unfortunately most of the statistics available are flawed in one way or another ‘perhaps because the populations use to generate their results, or because of faults in the statistical method.

It has been suggested that there is “No clear evidence that uniforms had any significant impact on improving achievement, only scattered anecdotes.”

If these scattered anecdotes came from those in a position to monitor performance, they probably have some substance. Without resorting to pure statistics, let us for a moment consider the British experience. Although there are major cultural and demographic differences between the US and the UK, for the most part we share common aspirations and values, a common language and an ardent desire for our education systems to work well.

The fact is that public schools in the UK have had uniform policies in place for years. The incidence of murder, gang culture, drug use, violent crime, bullying and general indiscipline in UK schools is far lower than in our American schools, and the major difference in the systems is the prevalence of uniform policy. It just works.


1. Warren LH, “The Benefits of Mandatory School Uniforms”, p,3, retrieved 21 August 2009 from

2. Fort Wayne School Administration “Fort Wayne School Year”. Retrieved on August 21 from

3. US Department of Education, February 1996. “Manual on School Uniforms”. Retrieved August 21, 2009 from

Source by Norman Munro

Rado Watches

Rado watches today are some of the best watches in the world. The success of their watches is one that has not happened overnight. Instead, Rado have built up the foundations for success over many years. The company first established itself in Switzerland in 1917 under the name Schlup and Co. It wasn’t until 1957 however, that the name Rado came about. It was at this time that the first watch collection was designed. Rado was the brand name thought up and since then the name Rado has stuck.

Rado have built up a great reputation in more recent years by winning a number of awards. All of the awards are worthy of a mention but the ones that are of particular importance for a watch brand like Rado are linked to design. These include the ‘Good Design Award’, won once in Chicago in 2002 and again in Japan in 2005, and the ‘IF design award’ won in China also in 2005. Design is one of the most important elements when building solid foundations for a brand which is one of the main reasons why Rado can claim to be the best watch company.

As previously mentioned, Rado have won a number of awards based on the careful, creative and innovative designs of their watch collection. Rado watches are of an outstanding quality and their design team can be extremely proud of the watches they produce. There are many different types of Rado watches. These include ceramica, integral, original, sintra and true, all of which have their own individual look, style and individuality. The design of each and every watch is truly exquisite and Rado watches have become more and more popular as the Rado watch range increases.

Rado also have an extremely strong company mission statement. This mission statement gives the impression that Rado is a creative company that really thinks about watches before they go full throttle into making them. They like to build their watch collection with new and imaginative ideas and give consumers the kinds of watches that only occur in dreams. The mission statement reads as follows ‘If we can imagine it, we can make it. If we can make it, we will”. They put their business on the line that they have realistic hopes that they can create something out of nothing and turn it into something really special.

With the exquisite design and outstanding looks, Rado watches have become one of the most received and well recognised watch collections on the market today. Consumers have taken to the shelves and Rado watches are certainly being snapped up. Many people will say that Rado watches are the best watches around and if Rado continues to produce such exceptional watches, Rado will continue to shine for many years to come.

Source by David K Fox

Facts About Modeling

Modeling is one of the most challenging careers for people. It will require one to be perfect at all times, and there can be a lot of rejection before finally having that dream career. It can be a very promising job, but also has its own sets of difficulties. Considering the entire disappointments one can have to themselves. Yes, it can give one lots of money because it is one of the most highly-paid jobs existing today, but there is always a price to pay. Consider these modeling career facts:

· Manifestation and Appearance

Models are always required to be thin and tall. If one doesn’t have those qualities, it will be impossible to even dream of modeling. Moreover, being tall and thin is not all there is. One is required to present their selves in public. Not all models are just tall and thin. There might be also available jobs for people of different sizes. The problem about models is that they try to be perfect at times, and as we all know, perfection is a very complicated thing. Models hear a lot of disappointments all the time if they are being commented with their weight, their height, and way of projecting themselves and so on.

· Money

The very reason most people wants to be models is because of the high pay. We can see top models being rich and famous. But if we take a closer look, we might even reconsider it. Supermodels are the richest ones in the modeling world. The other models that are not famously known can only earn around $200 for every job they have. And another thing is, they are not sure to have daily work. only when a company is interested to hire them, then they will get a call. It is really a pretty difficult career if you are not yet that famous.

· Perks

People always say that models get to have free clothes from designers. We see them at parties wearing designer clothes and expensive jewelries. What we don’t know is that what they wear is not really theirs. They are just borrowed clothes from the designer who is endorsing his designs. They will all be returned after, including the dress, shoes, and accessories.

· Diet and health

Models must always maintain their thin figure. They need to be thin, but healthy at the same time. People say that models barely eat. Well, they do eat. But they take proper care of their bodies and try to control gaining weight. That is why most models try to go through extreme dieting in order to have that perfect figure.

· Locations

If one wants to go for modeling, they need to move all the way to New York. There are lots of modeling works here compared to other places.

Those are the facts about modeling which we might not know before. If you want to start your modeling career, you must first know the facts about the job, and see if you can come up to the requirements and ways of living of a model.

Source by Ryan English

Getting to Know About Converse Shoes

“Converse Shoes” is one of the most popular shoe companies of America since the early 20th century. It was founded in 1908 in Malden, Massachusetts by Marquis Mill Converse who was a respected manager in a footwear firm. This company is quite famous for manufacturing athletic shoes for different sports such as tennis, and basketball. This company took its start as rubber manufacturer and provided customized rubber footwear for children men and women. Converse shoes add a lot to your physical appearance as they depict the right picture of your choice and sense of fashion. They are one of the most eye-catching shoes among all types of shoes.

Converse shoes have their own distinguishing features among other breeds of shoes. A large variety of converse shoes is introduced in the local and international markets for customers having different tastes. These shoes are being introduced in various different materials to meet the requirements of millions of shoe customers around the world. Converse shoes are light in weight as compared to other shoes. Converse shoes also manufacture some exquisite handmade shoes by some of the most popular and talented shoe designers as limited editions. These limited edition converse shoes are sold on high prices for about $700 a pair.

As the fashion trends change, new and modified designs of Converse shoes are being introduced in the market. They have recently restructured their manufacturing processes and have also started new lines of designs. These shoes are very comfy and relaxing when it comes to walking long distances. There is a large variety of colors and designs available in these shoes. They are made out of several different shoe materials including leather, suede and rubber etc. Apart from this, there is a great variety of colors in these shoes as they are liked in almost all age groups.

These are very popular in both males and females including young girls, women, men, children, youngsters, sportsmen and celebrities. They are now available in different attractive and eye-catching colors in various different patterns and materials, ranging from dark, semi-dark and loud vibrant colors under different price tags. Converse shoes and some other branded footwear companies offer amazing discounts on their products to attract customers. Nowadays you can purchase these funky shoes from online stores and e-commerce websites. However before making any decision, you must check the authenticity of the website and buy products using a reliable online store like 6pm.

Source by Nadav Snir